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Volume 39 Issue 1
Feb.  2021
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LIU Rong, ZHANG Kun, LIU ZhaoJun, YAN Xu, YU JiaQi. Oil Shale Mineralization and Geological Events in China[J]. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 2021, 39(1): 10-28. doi: 10.14027/j.issn.1000-0550.2020.104
Citation: LIU Rong, ZHANG Kun, LIU ZhaoJun, YAN Xu, YU JiaQi. Oil Shale Mineralization and Geological Events in China[J]. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 2021, 39(1): 10-28. doi: 10.14027/j.issn.1000-0550.2020.104

Oil Shale Mineralization and Geological Events in China

doi: 10.14027/j.issn.1000-0550.2020.104

National Natural Science Foundation of China 42072122

  • Received Date: 2020-06-30
  • Publish Date: 2021-02-10
  • Research findings increasingly indicate that geological events such as volcanic action, hydrothermal fluids, ocean anoxia, climate mutation, transgression, gravity flow and so on are frequently evident in the sedimentary sequences of oil shale (a type of fine-grained sedimentary rock rich in organic matter). High paleolake productivity and a stable reducing environment are important considerations for oil shale mineralization. A summary of the genesis and distribution behavior of oil shale in 50 basins (95 mining areas) in China reveals that the geological events listed above have led to various degrees of algal and microbial blooms which changed the water conditions in ancient lakes and formed the stable layered lacustrine environments that are important for oil shale mineralization. However, frequent volcanic eruptions release large amounts of gas and ash, and intermittent hydrothermal fluids at high temperature and pressure. Also, frequent gravity flow is not conducive to oil shale enrichment. The present study focuses only on a single event. In future it will be necessary to promote interdisciplinary studies of sedimentology, geochemistry and microbiology from the perspective of earth system science to reveal the ecological cyclic accumulation processes of unconventional oil and gas resources and major geological environment mutation. This will add to our understanding of the combined effects of various geological events on oil shale mineralization, and enrich the theory of unconventional oil and gas sedimentology.
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Oil Shale Mineralization and Geological Events in China

doi: 10.14027/j.issn.1000-0550.2020.104

National Natural Science Foundation of China 42072122

Abstract: Research findings increasingly indicate that geological events such as volcanic action, hydrothermal fluids, ocean anoxia, climate mutation, transgression, gravity flow and so on are frequently evident in the sedimentary sequences of oil shale (a type of fine-grained sedimentary rock rich in organic matter). High paleolake productivity and a stable reducing environment are important considerations for oil shale mineralization. A summary of the genesis and distribution behavior of oil shale in 50 basins (95 mining areas) in China reveals that the geological events listed above have led to various degrees of algal and microbial blooms which changed the water conditions in ancient lakes and formed the stable layered lacustrine environments that are important for oil shale mineralization. However, frequent volcanic eruptions release large amounts of gas and ash, and intermittent hydrothermal fluids at high temperature and pressure. Also, frequent gravity flow is not conducive to oil shale enrichment. The present study focuses only on a single event. In future it will be necessary to promote interdisciplinary studies of sedimentology, geochemistry and microbiology from the perspective of earth system science to reveal the ecological cyclic accumulation processes of unconventional oil and gas resources and major geological environment mutation. This will add to our understanding of the combined effects of various geological events on oil shale mineralization, and enrich the theory of unconventional oil and gas sedimentology.

LIU Rong, ZHANG Kun, LIU ZhaoJun, YAN Xu, YU JiaQi. Oil Shale Mineralization and Geological Events in China[J]. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 2021, 39(1): 10-28. doi: 10.14027/j.issn.1000-0550.2020.104
Citation: LIU Rong, ZHANG Kun, LIU ZhaoJun, YAN Xu, YU JiaQi. Oil Shale Mineralization and Geological Events in China[J]. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 2021, 39(1): 10-28. doi: 10.14027/j.issn.1000-0550.2020.104
  • 油页岩是一种固体可燃有机矿产,灰分含量高,含油率≥3.5%,发热量通常≥4 187 J/g,有机质含量高,主要由腐泥和腐殖质以及腐泥—腐殖质组成,在低温干馏下,可以得到油页岩油,是一种重要的非常规油气资源。我国油页岩资源丰富,居世界第二位[1]。我国石油对外依存度突破70%,油页岩资源有望成为重要的战略资源及补充能源。目前吉林大学和吉林众诚油页岩公司已经成功地开采出原位油页岩油,结合我国资源开发现状,寻找适合原位开发的高含油率“甜点区”成为了加快推进我国油页岩原位开发的重点问题。


    盆地 准噶尔盆地 银额盆地 鄂尔多斯盆地 朝阳盆地 松辽盆地 依兰盆地 桐柏盆地 黄县盆地
    地层 上二叠统 下白垩统 上三叠统 下白垩统 上白垩统 古近系 古近系 古近系
    沉积环境 半深湖—深湖 半深湖 半深湖—深湖 半深湖—深湖 半深—深湖 半深湖—深湖 浅湖 湖沼
    油页岩 赋存形式 单独油页岩矿 单独油页岩矿 单独油页岩矿 单独油页岩矿 单独油页岩矿 单独油页岩矿 与碱共生 与煤互层
    沉积构造 薄层状 块状、薄层状 块状、薄层状 块状、薄层状 块状、薄层状 块状 薄层状 块状
    最大累计 厚度/m 205 35.4 32 100 38.94 6.1 33.03 22
    最高含油率/% 22.1 11.47 10.56 7.71 16.37 8.37 7.9 24.38
    成因类型 Ⅰ~Ⅱ1 Ⅰ~Ⅱ1 1 Ⅰ~Ⅱ1 Ⅰ型 Ⅰ~Ⅱ1 Ⅰ型 Ⅰ~Ⅱ1
    湖水性质 半咸水—咸水 半咸水 淡水 淡水 淡水—半咸水 淡水 半咸水—咸水 半咸水—咸水
    氧化还原条件 还原 还原 还原 还原 还原 弱还原 还原 弱还原
    古气候 温暖湿润 半湿润—半干旱 温暖湿润 温暖湿润 温暖湿润 温暖湿润 温暖湿润 温暖湿润
    事件沉积 火山、热液 热液 火山、热液、 重力流 大洋缺氧、 火山、重力流 大洋缺氧、 火山、海侵 重力流 热液 海侵

    Table 1.  Characteristics and event deposition of oil shale in oil⁃bearing shale series in China


  • 中国油页岩资源丰富且分布广泛,分布在27个省(自治区)和50个盆地、95个含矿区。目前海相油页岩探明程度相对较低,已发现的大部分油页岩矿床多为陆相成因,且主要分布于内蒙古、山东、山西、吉林、黑龙江、陕西、辽宁、广东、新疆等9省区[24],发育于松辽、鄂尔多斯、伦坡拉、准噶尔、羌塘、柴达木、茂名、大杨树、抚顺等盆地(图1),其中松辽、鄂尔多斯和准噶尔盆地占中国油页岩总资源的一半以上。

    Figure 1.  Distribution of oil shale resources in China





  • 有机质作为油页岩的重要组成部分,其组成及类型与沉积环境密切相关。油页岩形成环境既有湖相、湖沼相,还有海相、海陆过渡相,但中国主要为湖相成因。湖泊有机质主要来源于两部分:一部分来自于湖泊底栖生物、浮游生物、底栖藻类以及微生物的自身生产,另一部分来自从陆地上搬运的陆源生物的碎屑(图2[26-28]

    Figure 2.  Sources distribution of organic matter in lakes (modified from reference [26])


    Figure 3.  Discrimination diagram for organic matter types of oil shale in different sedimentary environments (modified from reference [29])







  • 我国油页岩主要为湖相沉积,大部分学者认为其有机质主要为藻类[32-34],藻类勃发往往导致高湖泊生产力的形成[35-38],是油页岩中有机质富集的重要作用。


    传统模式中认为,微生物即所有的细菌和古菌以及大部分真核生物(如原生生物,一些真菌等)只是分解者,但事实上微生物既是分解者又是生产者。现代海湖研究表明,细菌也是初级生产力的重要组成部分[43-44]。化合物是识别鉴定有机质来源的重要手段,Sachsenhofer et al.[45]认为,在未成熟沉积有机质中低OEP1[OEP1=(nC17+6nC19+nC21)/(4nC18+4nC20)]和高OEP2[OEP2=(nC25+6nC27+nC29)/(4nC26+4nC28)]的正构烷烃的中长链C20-32来源于微藻类和细菌微生物的贡献。银额盆地油页岩中具有高OEP2值和低OEP1值的特点,表明有机质母质类型中藻类和细菌微生物的贡献较大,且细菌在油页岩中活动强于贫有机质泥岩(图4)。

    Figure 4.  m/z=57 mass chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbons in oil shale and organic⁃poor mudstone, Bayingebi Formation, Bagmaode area, Yin'e Basin

  • 丰富的有机质来源是油页岩形成的前提,有机质的聚集和保存则是油页岩成矿的另一个重要过程,缺氧是这个过程的最佳条件。油页岩中有机质分别来源于湖泊自身生产力和陆源有机碎屑供给,在动荡的湖泊水体条件下,绝大多数的有机质会发生降解作用,不利于油页岩中有机质的保存[46]

    研究者围绕着绿河组的Wilkins Peak段油页岩开展了大量的研究,先后建立分层湖模式[47]、干盐湖模式[48]、干盐湖复合体模式[49]、生物化学分层湖模式[50]和外因分层湖模式[51]等(图5)。这些模式都强调了水体分层在油页岩形成过程中的重要作用。在松辽盆地青山口组和嫩江组的油页岩中,Pr/Ph、δU以及β-胡萝卜烷等地球化学参数都指示了强还原—还原的稳定水体分层环境更有利于油页岩的形成[52-53]。并且,在富矿段反应还原条件的Ni/Co比值和Ni/V比值都表现出很好的稳定性,反映出富矿段的还原性主要取决于稳定的湖水分层。

    Figure 5.  Comparison between simple stratified lake and dry⁃salt lake complex model in Lvhe Basin(modified from references [20,47⁃48])


  • 从与神学论相结合的灾变论到新灾变论,研究者针对众多地质事件开展了详细研究,一些科学问题已成为当今地球科学领域中的研究前沿,如板块构造学的超大陆聚合与裂解[54-57]、古生物学的“五大灭绝”[58-59]、沉积学的事件沉积[60-64]等。长期的渐变过程与瞬时的突变过程是地质过程的基本方式,地质作用过程的发展正是由二者的交互决定的[65]




  • 在火山活动中,火山喷发出的气体或尘埃可以形成硫酸盐气溶胶,气溶胶—云—气候反馈系统可引起区域性气候改变从而导致水体浮游生物发生变化[68-69],同时,火山碎屑物质经风化和搬运作用进入到湖泊或土壤,也在一定程度上影响了湖泊及土壤中微生物、真菌、藻类等生物种类和数量[70-71]。火山灰含有大量的必需营养元素,例如K,P,Fe和Ca,这些元素可以溶解在水体中,通过与海水接触并快速释放使藻类在短时间内大量繁盛[72-76]



  • 热液活动与火山活动往往同期发生,水底热液携带着大量营养物质(Si、N、P、Fe、Zn)进入湖泊或海洋[76,82-83],为有机物的富集提供物质来源。热液活动区域往往拥有更高的营养物质及热源,其周围水体中微生物也较为丰富,活动强度也更明显[84-85]。热液喷口附近的火山玻璃在水下发生氧化反应,为微生物群落提供生存所必需的养料[86-88],从而促进微生物群落生长发育[89-91]。此外,热液喷发释放出的H2S, SO2等气体造成了明显的水体分层,底部厌氧的沉积环境更有利于有机质的保存[92-95]


    Figure 6.  Sedimentary model of oil shale in the 7th member of the Triassic Yanchang Formation within the Mesozoic Ordos Basin, Central China (modified from reference [101])


  • 大洋缺氧事件OAE 1a的发生在国际上普遍认为与Ontong-Java太平洋超级地幔柱的喷发有关,海底大规模火成岩省(Large Igneous Provinces,LIPs)活动导致大陆边缘沉积物中甲烷水化合物的分解[105-106]。大规模火成岩省的活动,引起大气中CO2浓度升高,温室效应加强,促进了地表风化作用和水文循环活动,为湖泊藻类的繁盛提供了充足的陆源营养物质,极大地提高了古湖泊生产力[107-111]。全球性大洋缺氧事件不仅在海洋沉积黑色页岩,在陆相湖泊中也发育油页岩及暗色泥岩沉积,例如在大洋缺氧事件OAE1a时期,辽西地区的九佛堂组和酒泉盆地的下沟组均发育油页岩及暗色泥岩[112-113]。戴霜等[114]通过对六盘山盆地北部时代火石寨剖面马东山组进行研究,证实其下部发育的黑色页岩和灰岩组合受大洋缺氧事件OAE1b的影响。伊帆等[115]认为羌塘地区侏罗系油页岩形成于Toarcian缺氧(T-OAE)。胡广等[116]认为中国东南沿海地区下白垩统普遍发育的多套黑色泥页岩与大洋缺氧事件OAE2相关。晚白垩世松辽盆地青山口组的缺氧事件与全球的Albian-Cenomanian缺氧事件(OAE2)相吻合。嫩江组的缺氧事件与全球的Santonian-Campanian缺氧事件(OAE3)相吻合[117-118]。此外,在银额盆地含油页岩层系的巴音戈壁组二段发现了热河生物群的典型化石东方叶肢介(Eosestheria sp.),三尾类蜉蝣(Ephemeropsis trisetalis)和长肢裂尾甲[119]。且巴音戈壁组二段顶部结束年龄为116 Ma[120-121],这个时期正是全球大洋缺氧事件OAE1a的时期[106,109]图7)。此外,发生于55 Ma左右的古新世—始新世极热事件(PETM)引起的缺氧事件对古近系油页岩形成也具有一定的促进作用。

    Figure 7.  Geological events related to the Cretaceous global carbon cycle and their changes (modified from reference[122], geological age modified from reference [123])

  • 油页岩是一种富含有机质的岩石,藻类、低等生物及陆地高等植物为油页岩提供了丰富的物质来源,而气候又是控制地球表面古生物繁盛的重要因素。因此,温暖湿润的古气候条件是油页岩的有利形成环境[15,124-126]




    Figure 8.  Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, paleoclimate, sea level change, volcanic and humid events and the distribution of events in Ordos Basin in the Middle⁃Late Triassic

  • 中国含油页岩盆地大多数为陆相湖盆沉积,但也有一些盆地不同程度的出现了海侵作用,海侵发生的层位与油页岩富矿富集层位具有很好的耦合性。有机质来源即高古湖泊生产力是油页岩形成的前提,海侵作用会向湖泊内带入大量海洋浮游生物,提高了古湖泊生产力,并在一定程度上改变了有机质来源的类型[148]。更重要的是,海侵作用会导致湖泊水体条件发生改变,海水中藻类所需的营养元素向湖泊输入会导致湖泊的富营养化,提高湖泊的初级生产力。此外,由于海水中碱性水体可以容纳更多的 C O 3 2 - 和CO2,为水中藻类及沉水植物的光合作用提供了碳源,因而碱性海水向湖盆的输入可以导致湖泊初级生产力升高[30]



  • 丰富的有机质聚集过程中,若受到外源陆源碎屑的输入,将会导致有机质被大量稀释。品质较好的油页岩大都形成于稳定的半深湖—深湖环境下,在该条件下重力流作用是将外源陆源碎屑带入的重要地质事件。重力流是一种重要的沉积物搬运和沉积机制,包括浊流、流体化流、颗粒流和碎屑流。近年来,很多的研究集中于重力流作用对于油气储集的影响,例如鄂尔多斯盆地中南部长7段、长6大面积分布的致密油储层是重力流事件沉积的产物。具有较好的储层物性的重力流砂体与长7段富有机质页岩相互叠置发育形成源储大面积紧密接触,聚集效率高的致密油甜点区[163]。但对比鄂尔多斯长7段和长9段油页岩发育情况发现,长9油页岩厚度较薄,含油率较低。这与长9段发育大量浊积岩有关。在鄂尔多斯盆地,重力流事件沉积发生时,岸上的陆源高等植物、浅湖生物以及大量泥砂被输入深水区,并且对原有沉积有机质造成强烈稀释,降低了有机质丰度[164-165],同样的现象也发生在依兰盆地[166]。同时,在长73段后期,由于频繁的火山活动,引发了许多地震,在深湖相中形成了浊积石沉积物,浅水中的氧气与砂体一起进入湖底,破坏了缺氧的沉积环境,有机质的保存条件变差,有机质的富集程度逐渐降低(图9)。

    Figure 9.  TOC and redox evolution of Chang 7 member of Yanchang Formation of Well ZK903 in Ordos Basin (modified from reference [101])

  • (1) 油页岩中有机质成因类型取决于藻类和微生物的堆积和陆源高等植物碎屑堆积的比例,主要有腐泥型和混合型,我国油页岩以腐泥型和腐殖腐泥型为主。藻类勃发和微生物繁盛是湖泊油页岩有机质的重要贡献。

    (2) 火山活动释放的火山灰为湖泊藻类提供了大量的营养物质,造成湖泊水体的富营养化,导致藻类和细菌的大量繁殖,有利于油页岩形成。但若过量的火山灰和频繁火山爆发释放大量气体将对油页岩富集带来不利的影响。

    (3) 热液事件与油页岩发育有着良好的耦合关系,热液携带营养元素的输入及释放的还原性气体,促进湖泊表层水体在生物的繁盛和底部厌氧的有机质保存条件,有利于油页岩富集;但也有学者研究表明相对高温高压的间歇性热液流体反而不利于生物生存并破坏稳定的缺氧环境,不利于油页岩富集。

    (4) 大洋缺氧事件普遍认为与海底大规模火成岩省有关,其引起的大气中CO2浓度升高导致的温室效应,改变了古湖泊水体条件从而引发藻类勃发和微生物繁盛,有利于油页岩富集。

    (5) 气候湿润事件不仅促进了湖泊生物和周边陆源植被的繁盛,同时,充足的降雨增加了地表径流,为湖盆提供了大量的陆源有机质,湖平面的升高促进了稳定的湖水氧化还原分层,有利于油页岩富集。

    (6) 海侵事件为陆相湖盆带来了藻类所需的营养元素,促进其勃发,同时,湖泊咸化也促进了水体盐度分层,氧化还原界面上移,有利于油页岩富集。

    (7) 重力流事件在一定程度上将原有沉积有机质造成强烈稀释,降低了有机质丰度,同时也将破坏原有的稳定还原环境,不利于油页岩富集。

  • 地球作为一个庞大而复杂的生态系统,各个因素间都有着不同程度的联系,地质事件代表了其中某个因素的改变,但往往可能导致一系列不同的结果。地球内部构造作用而引发的火山及热液活动与有机质富集的关系密切,推断火山活动释放CO2改变了区域或全球性的古气候,火山灰和热液流体可以增加水体中营养元素的输入而促进初级生产力的提高,热液活动通过营造缺氧硫化的底部水体条件为有机质提供良好的保存条件,但火山及热液活动释放的营养元素参与湖泊生态系统循环的过程及对有机质保存条件贡献的大小依然不清楚。同时,气候变暖促进海平面上升而引发的海侵事件对原有湖泊生态系统中物质循环所造成影响的研究较少。许多地质事件与有机质富集之间具有着良好的耦合关系,但缺乏从地质事件到有机质富集之间的生态变化过程的研究,如地质事件的发生对大气—陆地中各个循环系统的影响,今后需要促进多学科交叉,进一步加强多种地质事件耦合作用对油页岩成矿影响,丰富发展油页岩成矿理论与非常规油气沉积学,同时也为寻找非常规油气资源起到重要作用。


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