根据黄土高原第四纪古土壤和风化带的广泛调查,发现了CaCO3 等化学成分的不连续淀积、厚层及多层淀积等特殊地质现象,结合CaCO3 含量分析与入渗实验资料,建立了风化淋滤带CaCO3 淀积深度新理论。该理论表明,CaCO3 迁移到淀积深度所需时间很短,可以忽略时间因素对它的影响,能够作为研究风化淋滤带的许多地质问题的较可靠依据。当CaCO3 淀积深度小于古土壤发育带厚度时,可确定土壤已向风化壳转变 当Ca CO3 淀积深度大于古土壤层厚度时,可确定土壤为淋溶型、中酸性土壤 当同一风化剖面中或同一层古土壤下部出现两层、三层或厚度异常大的CaCO3 淀积层时,指示当时出现了两个或两个以上成壤期和相应的气候变化。
In the research of many geological problems about weathered eluvial zone, the conten theory is widely adpoted, which is based on content of chemical composition. Although the content is very important to resolve lots of geological problems, this theory is not perfect because the content of chemical composition is easily effected by the weathering process. In order to remedy the defect of traditional content theory and reveal the law of nature, it is necessary to establish anew theory. During the investigation of paleosol and weathered eluvial zone in the Loess Plateau, the author found unsuccessive illuviation, thick layer or multi-layer illuviation of CaCO3 and other chemical composition-a special geological phenomenon. In the paper, the author established a new theory on depth of CaCO3 illuvial horizon of weathered zone combining with CaCO3 content analysis and penetrating experiment, this theory is very effetive to study paleosol, weathering crust, paleoenvironment and many geological problems of weachered eluvial zone. The theory reveals that the more precipitation is, the bigger the movement depth of CaCO3 illuvial horizon is, though the eluvial process is very short; the less the precipitation is, the shallower the movement depth of CaCO3 illurial horizon is, though eluvial process is very long. Because the process in which CaCO3 moves to the illuvial horizon is very short, the influence of time could be neglected. So the moved depth of CaCO3 illuvial horizon is reliable basis for studying many geological problems about weathered eluvial zone. Since CaCO3 belongs to dissoluble salt, the illuviation process of the salts such as NaCl, CaSO4, which are more dissoluble than CaCO3, is much shorter, and the illuvial theory on the depth of CaCO3 can be applied to them. The movement of colloid material such as Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is influenced clearly by time factor, however, as long as their illuvial horizons form, that is to say, the process needed in which they move to the illuvial horizon have been met. So their illuvial depth can also be regarded as areliable foundation for studying the geological problem of weathered eluvial zone. There are three reasons why the movement time of CaCO3 to illuvial depth is very short. The first is that CaCO3 can move under the condition of basicity. Movement and illuviation can occure in the early period of soil-forming processes. The second is that a part of CaCO3 comes from precipitation and CaCO3 can illuviate at the bottom of soil as long as eluvial occurs. The third is that CaCO3 exists in the form of Ca2+and HCO-3 in the water. The two ions will follow the penetrating water whereever it goes. According to the quantitative correlation (y=305x+168.5) between mean annual precipitation (y) and depth of CaCO3 illuvial horizon(x), the mean annual precipitation in the developmental period of paleosol and weathering crust can be calculated quantitatively and provides a basis for determining the formula on precipitation of rainy season. The author can draw three deductions in accordance with the illuvial theory on depth of CaCO3 and the types of CaCO3 illuvial horizon. Deduction 1：when movement depth of CaCO3 illuvial horizon exceeds the thickness of clay-grouting layer of soil, it can be seen that the soil is the neutral or acid soil of leaching type. Deduetion 2： When moved depth of CaCO3 illuvial horizon exceeds the thickness of developing zone of soil (about 2 m) , it can be determined that the soil is changing to weathering crust. Deduction 3： when two, three layers or unusually thick CaCO3 illuvial horizon exists under the same paleosol or weathering profile, it indicates that there are two or more soil-forming periods and corresponding climate change at that time.