MICROBIOLOGICAL CONVERSION OF SUBSTANCES AND ENERGY IN ORGANIC SEDIMENTARY REGIONS
摘要: 从有机质转化为石油及煤的过程,实质上是含碳化合物的转化、能量的转换与贮集以及两者之间相互作用的过程。世界上的有机物是由生物建造的。有机物中的能量渊源于太阳能及地球内部贮能。植物及自养菌从光和还原性无机物中获得能量,用以还原CO2为有机物,贮能于其中,它们是有机物的生产者。Abstract: The problems of preservation and conversion of organic substances in sedimentary regions of present water spheres, oil pools as well as coal mines were discussed with respect to energy flows, food chains of microbial ecosystems and microbiological processes of C.N.S. cycles at the same time changes of C/N in present sediments were also described in detail. It has been pointed out that in aerobic conditions, organic substances can not be preserved because microogranisms mineralize them into CO2. In anaerobic conditions, when microorganisms consume organic substances, in addition to CO2, small molecular organic and reduced inorganic products are produced. Energy is stored in them, which results in a more complex process of substance and energy conversion than that under the former condition. But both aerobic and anaerobic are present in today's sediments. ( 1 ) The range of energy source substance available for microorganisms is reduced with the decrease of oxidative abilities of electron accepters O2, NO3, SO4 and C02, thus the range and the amount of organic substance to be consumed by microorganisms become limited. It follows that food chain ( or food net ) turns more complex, which helps preserve a large amount of organic substance. ( 2 ) Energy produced by metabolates in anaerobic microorganisms, is partially transferred to sediments so as to absorb O2 and to create reduced phase, which is favourable for the preservation of organic substance. The mechanisms as mentioned above have been dealt with in detail and some instances were taken to explain the relationships and the reaction levels between microorganisms and energy conversions. In short, the types, the enriched levels of organic substances and O2 volume are the key factors for the preservation of organic substance. In addition, some microbial genus and species in oil pools and coal mines, and their roles in substance and energy conversions as well as necessary ecological conditions have also been described.
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